Category Archives: Technology

Golfing with Linear Equations

For the first time in many years, I am teaching a College Prep Algebra 1 class with a fantastic group of 9th graders. Nearing the end of our linear functions unit, my colleagues and I discussed a desire to have some sort of culminating activity. And while I have used drawing projects often in some courses, in algebra 1 such tasks have often left me feeling unfulfilled. Too many horizontal and vertical lines for my liking I suppose.

I recalled reading about a potential golf-related task on twitter. To be honest, I don’t recall whose exact post provided the inspiration here (note – I am thinking it was Robert Kaplinsky or John Stevens, but I may be wrong. If anyone locates a source, I’ll edit this and provide ample credit), but it felt like a game-related task could provide by the strategy and fun elements which tend to be missed by drawing tasks.


The goal – write equations of lines which connect the “tee” to the “hole”. Use domain and/or range restrictions to connect your “shots”. Try to reach each hole in a minimal number of shots. Leaving the course (the green area) or hitting “water” are forbidden. All vertical or horizontal likes incur a one-stroke penalty.

On the day before the task, the class worked through a practice hole. Besides understanding the math task, there are also a few Desmos items for students to understand:

  • Syntax for domain / range restrictions
  • Placing items into folders
  • Turning folders on /off

practice hole

golfFor the actual task, a shared a link to a Desmos file with 5 golf holes. I tried to build tasks which increased in their difficulty. In practice, the task took an entire class period (75 minutes), and students worked in pairs to discuss, plan, and complete the holes. All students then uploaded their graphs to Canvas for my review, and filled out a “scorecard” which included “par” for each hole.  It became quite competitive and fun!



In the end, there is not too much I would change here. Perhaps add some more complex holes. I’d also like to provide opportunity for students to design and share their own golf holes, and study the “engine” which built mine.  I hope your class has fun with it! Please share your suggestions, questions and adaptations.

Seeing Stars with Random Sampling

Adapted from Introduction to Statistical Investigations, AP Version, by Tintle, Chance, Cobb, Rossman, Roy, Swanson and VanderStoep

Before the Thanksgiving break, I started the sampling chapter in AP Statistics.  This is a unit filled with new vocabulary and many, many class activities.  To get students thinking about random sampling, I have used the “famous” Random Rectangles activity (Google it…you’ll find it) and it’s cousin – Jelly Blubbers. These activities are effective in causing students to think about the importance of choosing a random sample from a population, and considering communication of procedures. But a new activity I first heard about at a summer session on simulation-based inference, and later explained by Ruth Carver at a recent PASTA meeting, has added some welcome wrinkles to this unit.  The unit uses the one-variable sampling applet from the Rossman-Chance applet collection, and is ideal for 1-1 classrooms, or even students working in tech teams.  Also, Beth Chance is wonderful…and you should all know that!

starsIn my classroom notes, students first encounter the “sky”, which has been broken into 100 squares. To start, teams work to define procedures for selecting a random sample of 10 squares, using both the “hat” (non-technology) method, and a method using technology (usually a graphing calculator). Before we draw the samples however, I want students to think about the population – specifically, will a random sample do a “good job” with providing estimates? Groups were asked to discuss what they notice about the sky.  My classes immediately sensed something worth noting:

There are some squares where there are many stars (we end up calling these “dense” squares) and some where there are not so many.

Before we even drew our first sample, we are talking about the need to consider both dense and non-dense areas in our sample, and the possibility that our sample will overestimate or underestimate the population, even in random sampling.  There’s a lot of stats goodness in all of this, and the conversation felt natural and accessible to the students.

Studestars1nts then used their technology-based procedure to actually draw a random sample of 10 squares, marking off the squares.  But counting the actual stars is not reasonable, given their quantity – so it’s Beth Chance to the rescue!  Make sure you click the “stars” population to get started.  Beth has provided the number of stars in each square, and information regarding density, row and column to think about later.

But before we start clicking blindly, let’s describe that population.   The class quickly agrees that we have a skewed-right distribution, and take note of the population mean – we’ll need it to discuss bias later.

Click “show sampling options” on the top of the screen and we can now simulate random samples.  First, students each drew a sample of size 10 – the bottom of the screen shows the sample, summary statistics, and a visual of the 10 squares chosen from the population.


Groups were asked to look at their sample means, share them with neighbors, and think about how close these samples generally come to hitting their target.  Find a neighbor where few “dense” area were selected , or where many “dense” squares made the cut, how much confidence do we have in using this procedure to estimate the population mean?

Eventually I unleashed the sampling power of the applet and let students draw more and more samples.  And while a formal discussion of sampling distributions is a few chapters away, we can make observations about the distributions of these sample means.


And I knew the discussion was heading in the right direction when a student observed:

Hey, the population is definitely skewed, but the means are approximately normal.  That’s odd…

Yep, it sure is…and more seeds have been planted for later sampling distribution discussions. But what about those dense and non-dense areas the students noticed earlier?  Sure, our random samples seem to provide an unbiased estimator of the population mean, but can we do better?  This is where Beth’s applet is so wonderful, and where this activity separates itself from Random Rectangles.  On the top of the applet, we can stratify our sample by density, ensuring that an appropriate ratio of dense / non-dense areas (here, 20%) is maintained in the sample.  The applet then uses color to make this distinction clear: here, green dots represent dense-area squares.


Finally, note the reduced variability in the distribution from stratified samples, as opposed to random samples. The payoff is here!

Later, we will look at samples stratified by row and/or column.  And cluster samples by row or column will also make an appearance.  There’s so much to talk about with this one activity, and I appreciate Ruth and Beth for sharing!

Pulling In To the Station

My school isn’t 1-1 with technology yet, though there are rumblings we will get there next year….or the year after….or 2031…anyway, it’s time to get techy!  My new classroom features 4 computer stations in the back – nice to have, but not super-helpful with classes of about 24 each. Station-model classroom structure has been super-helpful in my pre-calculus class in the first month. Besides the chance for all students to participate in rich technology-based activities, I’ve had the opportunity to carve out valuable small-group time with students.  Here’s an example:

In our first pre-calc unit, we review functions and their shirts, folding in new ideas like the step function, piecewise and even/odd functions.  My objective for the class was for students to consider functions in varied forms.  As students entered class, playing cards were drawn to establish their groupings, so there were 3 groups of 7 or 8.  With 15 minutes on the classroom clock, students started on their first station:

  1. Group 1 gathered in a small group with me in a circle of desks, where we worked through proving functions even or odd, and sketching their graphs.
  2. marbleslideGroup 2 worked at the computer stations on a Desmos Marbleslides featuring quadratic functions, with many students pairing up to work together. If you have never tried a Marbleslides, run and play now – we’ll wait for you to come back…
  3. Group 3 worked out in the courtyard (hey, my new classroom leads outside – which is nice) on a group task involving a piecewise function.

After groups had rotated through all 3 activities, we had time to recap / share and assess our learning over the hour.  Here’s why I need to do this more:

  • The small group station let me touch base with every student, assess strengths, find out what we need to work on, and provide feedback to everyone.
  • Marbleslides is sneaky awesome! When students begin to obsess over function shifts and how to restrict domains and don’t want to peel away from their computer, you know something is going right.
  • Class went fast! It felt like the mixed practice from Let It Stick was now becoming part of my classroom culture.
  • My pre-calc is mostly 11th and 12th graders, who have had a pretty traditional classroom experience in their math lives.  I can sense they appreciate that something difference is happening.
  • All students are responsible for their learning.  Even the least-active task, the piecewise function, was used the next class for sharing out and a jumping-off point.